Created:2023-10-04 Last Modified:2024-06-24

This document was translated by ChatGPT

This chapter introduces the deployment methods of DeepFlow. DeepFlow can be used to monitor container applications on multiple K8s, and cloud host applications in multiple VPCs. The content of this chapter is arranged as follows:

  • all-in-one: Quickly experience DeepFlow using a single virtual machine
  • single-k8s: Deploy DeepFlow to monitor all applications on a K8s cluster, with all observability data automatically injected into K8s resources and K8s custom labels
  • multi-k8s: Deploy DeepFlow to monitor all applications across multiple K8s clusters
  • legacy-host: Deploy DeepFlow to monitor all applications on traditional servers
  • cloud-host: Deploy DeepFlow to monitor all applications on cloud servers, with all observability data automatically injected into cloud resources labels
  • managed-k8s: Deploy DeepFlow to monitor all applications on cloud provider-managed K8s clusters, with all observability data automatically injected into cloud resources, K8s resources, and K8s custom labels
  • serverless-pod: Deploy DeepFlow to monitor all applications within Serverless Pods
  • upgrade: DeepFlow upgrade

#1. Online Demo Environment

If you currently do not have suitable resources to deploy DeepFlow, you can log in to our online demo (opens new window) to experience the powerful capabilities of DeepFlow through the following documentation sections:

#2. Running Permissions and Kernel Requirements

The eBPF capabilities (AutoTracing, AutoProfiling) in DeepFlow have the following kernel version requirements:

Architecture Distribution Kernel Version kprobe Golang uprobe OpenSSL uprobe perf
X86 CentOS 7.9 3.10.0 [1] Y Y [2] Y [2] Y
RedHat 7.6 3.10.0 [1] Y Y [2] Y [2] Y
* 4.9-4.13 Y
* 4.14 [3] Y Y [2] Y
* 4.15 Y Y [2] Y
* 4.16 Y Y Y
* 4.17+ Y Y Y Y
ARM CentOS 8 4.18 Y Y Y Y
EulerOS 5.10+ Y Y Y Y
KylinOS V10 SP3+ 4.19.90-52.25+ Y Y Y Y
Other Distributions 5.8+ Y Y Y Y

Additional notes on kernel versions:

  • [1]: CentOS 7.9 and RedHat 7.6 have backported some eBPF capabilities (opens new window) into the 3.10 kernel
    • In these two distributions, the detailed kernel versions supported by DeepFlow are as follows (dependent hook points (opens new window)):
      • 3.10.0-957.el7.x86_64
      • 3.10.0-1062.el7.x86_64
      • 3.10.0-1127.el7.x86_64
      • 3.10.0-1160.el7.x86_64
    • Note RedHat's statement:

      The eBPF in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.6 is provided as Tech Preview and thus doesn't come with full support and is not suitable for deployment in production. It is provided with the primary goal to gain wider exposure, and potentially move to full support in the future. eBPF in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.6 is enabled only for tracing purposes, which allows attaching eBPF programs to probes, tracepoints and perf events.

  • [2]: Golang/OpenSSL processes inside containers are not supported
  • [3]: In kernel version 4.14, a tracepoint cannot be attached by multiple eBPF programs (e.g., two or more deepflow-agents cannot run simultaneously), this issue does not exist in other versions

Requirements for running permissions of deepflow-agent:

  • When running in a K8s environment, the permissions required to collect K8s information include:
    • [Required] Container permission: HOST_PID
    • [Recommended] Kernel permission: SYS_ADMIN
      • Without this permission, the mapping relationship between rootns network interface names, Pod IPs, and Pod MACs will be obtained by parsing ARP/ICMPV6 packets, and WARN logs will be printed
    • [Required] Kernel permission: SYS_PTRACE
    • [Recommended] File permission: Read-only access to the /var/run/netns directory
      • Without this permission, the performance of obtaining container network namespaces will be affected
      • deepflow-agent will prioritize obtaining container network namespaces from this directory
      • If this directory cannot be accessed, the container network namespace will be obtained through /proc/$pid/ns/net, with two issues:
        • The file will disappear when the process stops
        • Different PIDs may correspond to the same namespace
  • Permissions required to collect AF_PACKET traffic include:
    • [Required] Container permission: HOST_NET
    • [Required] Kernel permissions: NET_RAW, NET_ADMIN
    • [Recommended] Kernel permission: IPC_LOCK (including MAP_LOCKED, MAP_NORESERVE)
      • Without this permission, cBPF performance will be significantly affected, and WARN logs will be printed
  • Permissions required to collect eBPF data include:
    • [Required] System permission: SELINUX = disabled
    • [Recommended] Kernel permission: SYS_ADMIN
      • Under kernel Linux 5.8+, SYS_ADMIN is not required, and a combination of BPF and PERFMON can be used instead
      • Using SYS_ADMIN permission has no kernel Linux 5.8+ version dependency
    • [Required] Kernel permissions: SYS_RESOURCE, SYSLOG
    • [Required] File permission: Read-only access to the /sys/kernel/debug/ directory
      • Since the attach/detach operations of kprobe and uprobe type probes depend on the kernel debug subsystem, eBPF cannot be enabled without this permission
      • Additionally, since this directory can only be accessed by the root user, the deepflow-agent process must run as the root user
    • [Required] Ensure that the content of the file /proc/sys/kernel/kptr_restrict is not equal to 2, otherwise Continuous Profiler cannot be used
      • When kptr_restrict is set to 2, all users cannot read kernel symbol addresses, even with CAP_SYSLOG permission
      • The agent will check kernel symbol addresses at startup, and if they cannot be read, WARN logs will be printed
      • Generally, this value defaults to 1; if it is set to 2, users can set the file content to 1 in advance
    • [Recommended] File permission: Read-write access to the file /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable
      • When the content of this file is not equal to 1, eBPF performance will be significantly affected
        • When the value is 1, deepflow-agent will read the value, and if it lacks read permission, WARN logs will be printed
        • When the value is not 1, deepflow-agent will attempt to change it to 1, and if the modification fails, WARN logs will be printed
      • If you want to achieve good eBPF performance without granting write permission, users can set the file content to 1 in advance
      • In K8s, the deepflow-agent DaemonSet will by default enable a privileged init container to set this value to 1, allowing deepflow-agent to run in non-privileged mode

The deepflow-agent requires the following get/list/watch permissions to call the K8s apiserver to synchronize information:

  • nodes
  • namespaces
  • configmaps
  • services
  • pods
  • replicationcontrollers
  • daemonsets
  • deployments
  • replicasets
  • statefulsets
  • ingresses
  • routes

Additionally, associating K8s label information requires adaptation to the CNI. Currently, DeepFlow has adapted to the following CNIs:

  • Flannel
  • Calico
  • Cilium
  • Multus
  • Open vSwitch
  • Weave
  • TKE GlobalRouter
  • ACK Terway
  • QKE HostNIC
  • IPVlan
  • MACVlan additional configuration